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  • This report, the latest in a series of biennial assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), summarizes findings for the 2007-2008 period, during which 95 volunteer experts in a variety of fields in science and engineering visited ARL annually, received formal presentations on technical work, examined facilities, engaged in technical discussions with ARL staff, and reviewed technical materials. The experts conclude that the overall quality of the ARL staff is impressive and that the work continues to be relevant to the Army's needs, with a clear focus on the needs of soldiers in the field. Although only two directorates have large program-support missions, all of them are mindful of the importance of transitioning technology to support the Army's immediate and near-term needs. ARL staff are also becoming more involved with the wider scientific and engineering community (e.g., monitoring developments, engaging in collaborative projects
    Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-14390-X5
  • Since 1996, the National Research Council (NRC) Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board (ARLTAB) has provided biannual assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the research, development, and analysis programs at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL).  ALTAB is assisted ...
    Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board
    ISBN: 0-309-21140-9
    Release Date: January 1, 2011
  • The NRC Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board (ARLTAB) provides biennial assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the research, development, and analysis programs at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). For 2011–2012, ARL asked the board to examine crosscutting ...
    Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board; Laboratory Assessments Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-26899-8
    Release Date: January 1, 2013
  • The Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), a program of the US Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology, is a national network of affiliated manufacturing extension centers and field offices, in the 50 states and Puerto Rico, that seeks to strengthen ...
    Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy; Policy and Global Affairs Division; National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-29117-0
    Release Date: January 1, 2013
  • Information on job characteristics and the people who perform those jobs is valuable for career guidance, reemployment counseling, workforce development, human resource management, and other purposes. In 1998. the U.S. Department of Labor launched the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), ...
    Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-14769-9
  • This book provides an unparalleled dataset that can be used to assess the quality and effectiveness of doctoral programs based on measures important to faculty, students, administrators, funders, and other stakeholders. The data, collected for the 2005–2006 academic year from more than ...
    Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-16030-8
    Release Date: January 1, 2011
  • The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) was created in 2000 to focus and coordinate nanoscience and nanotechnology research and development (R&D) funded by several federal agencies. The purpose of NNI is to ensure that research leads to the responsible development and deployment of nanotechnology for economic benefit and national security. In the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (P.L. 108-153), Congress directed the National Research Council to review the program every three years to monitor its overall progress. This report provides the results of the first review, which addresses the economic impact of nanotechnology developments and provides a benchmark for comparing U.S. R&D efforts to efforts by foreign competitors. In addition, the report provides an assessment of the current status of responsible development and a discussion of the feasibility of molecular self-assembly.
    National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-10223-5
  • Recent advances in biology have increased the likelihood that the results of biological research can contribute to practical solutions to major challenges in the 21st century, particularly sustainable food production, ecosystem restoration, optimized biofuel production, and improved human health. The "new biology" recommended in this report is based on integrated efforts among biologists and close collaboration with physical, computational, and earth scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. To be most effective, there must be coordinated efforts to leverage resources in the federal, private, and academic sectors.
    Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-14488-9
  • The rapid pace at which digital printing is advancing is posing a very serious challenge to the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Printing (BEP) to stay ahead of the evolving counterfeiting threats to U.S. currency. To help meet that challenge, the BEP asked the NRC to undertake an assessment of technologies and methods to produce designs to enhance the security of U.S. Federal Reserve notes (FRNs). This report presents the results of a systematic investigation of the trends in digital imaging and printing and how they enable emerging counterfeiting threats; the identification and analysis of new features of FRNs that could provide effective countermeasures to these threats; and an overview of a requirements-driven development process that could be adapted to develop an advanced-generation currency.
    Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-10578-1
  • While a number of remarkable discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics have taken place over the past 20 years, many important questions remain. Continued progress in these fields will require NASA’s leadership. To help determine if NASA can meet this challenge, Congress, in the 2005 NASA ...
    Space Studies Board Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-10490-4
  • In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) founded the Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) to develop and distribute geospatial data in a way that meets national needs in our rapidly changing information-technology environment. USGS asked the National Research Council ...
    Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-11154-4
  • As an ITER partner, the United States will have an opportunity to explore, with ITER’S other partners, the frontiers of plasma science and to bring the promise of fusion energy closer to realization. Seven international partners, China, the European Union, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Russia, and the United States, representing more than half of the world population, will have access to the scientific results. The success of ITER will depend on each partner’s engagement in addressing the scientific and technological challenges of advancing our understanding of fusion. In this report, a National Research Council committee assesses the current U.S. Department of Energy’s plan for U.S. participation in ITER and recommends goals, procedures, and metrics to be included in future versions.
    Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-12475-1
  • The National Research Council was asked to review the draft Ocean Research Priorities Plan (ORPP), "Charting the Course for Ocean Science in the United States: Research Priorities for the Next Decade." The draft ORPP, the first coordinated national research plan involving all federal ...
    Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-10403-3
  • Although asbestos is no longer mined in the United States, exposures to asbestos continue to contribute to respiratory diseases, including mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) drafted a research road map, "Asbestos Fibers ...
    National Research Council Institute of Medicine
    ISBN: 978-0-309-14015-7
  • Ocean research has yielded countless benefits, from improving fisheries management to discovering new drugs and enabling the early detection of tsunamis and hurricanes. At the request of the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology (JSOST), the National Research Council established a committee of experts to review the draft and final versions of the "Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy" described in Charting the Course for Ocean Science in the United States: Research Priorities for the Next Decade , the first coordinated national plan for ocean research that involves all federal agencies that support ocean science. The report recommends that JSOST use a variety of outreach mechanisms to inform and engage nonfederal partners in planning ocean research, such as continuing the practice of using external committees to provide scientific and technical advice and to review progress on the implementation of the research plan.
    Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-11063-7
  • The San Francisco Bay Delta estuary is a large, complex ecosystem in California that has been substantially altered by dikes, levees, channelization, pumps, human development, introduced species, dams on its tributary streams, and contaminants.  The Delta supplies water from the state’s ...
    Water Science and Technology Board Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies
    ISBN: 0-309-21231-6
    Release Date: January 1, 2011
  • The Bioastronautics Roadmap developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is designed to gauge the risks of crew exposures to hazardous environments in space. The road map was created to support the three Design Reference Missions: a one-year mission to the International Space Station; a month-long stay on the lunar surface; and a 30-month round-trip journey to Mars. In 2003, NASA asked the National Academies to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the road map to identify the unique challenges to these missions. In this follow-up report, an ad hoc committee concludes that the current version of the road map is a useful first step but will not be adequate to achieve its stated goals. The committee recommends changes and improvements to be incorporated into the document and into the thinking and actions of NASA management.
    Institute of Medicine and National Research Council
    ISBN: 0-309-09948-X
  • This special report argues that federal, state, and local policy makers need informed guidance to determined the effectiveness, costs, feasibility, and acceptability of transportation strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, conserve energy, and adapt to climate change. The report provides discussions of potential strategies related to travel mode choice, models and decision tools, infrastructure investment, and infrastructure construction, operation, and maintenance. The committee that prepared the report recommends that a research and development initiative be initiated with a modest investment of $40 million to $45 million annually in the next authorization of funds for surface transportation. The investment would support the development of the best available guidance based on existing information; this guidance would then be improved over time based on the results of new research.
    Transportation Research Board National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-14275-X5
  • The Earth’s climate is changing, and without action by the world’s nations the planet will get warmer, sea level will rise, and patterns of rainfall will change. Will the changes be gradual, allowing natural systems and societal infrastructure to adjust in a timely fashion? Or will ...
    Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council
    ISBN: 978-0-309-29770-7
    Release Date: January 1, 2013
  • Biomarkers, indicators of a biologic state, are central to the future of medicine. As the cost of developing drugs has risen, fewer new drugs are being developed and tested. The increased use of biomarkers may be a way to cut costs, improve safety, and provide a focused, rational pathway to drug development. On October 24, 2008, the IOM Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held a one-day workshop to discuss and explore the value of biomarkers in helping to determine drug safety during the development phase. Workshop participants discussed current methods of determining unintended effects early in drug development, identified obstacles to the development of biomarkers that could be used to determine drug safety, and discussed the development of biomarkers could be accelerated through public and private means.
    Board on Health Sciences Policy Institute of Medicine
    ISBN: 978-0-309-13124-7
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