Making the Case for Technological Literacy

National Symposium on Technological Literacy: Speaker Bios

Dr. Bruce Alberts
Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences and chair of the National Research Council the principal operating arm of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. He is a respected biochemist recognized for his work in both biochemistry and molecular biology and is known particularly for his extensive molecular analyses of the protein complexes that allow chromosomes to be replicated. Alberts joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1966 and after ten years moved to the medical school of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). In 1980, he was awarded an American Cancer Society lifetime research professorship. In 1985, he was named chair of the UCSF department of biochemistry and biophysics. Alberts is one of the principal authors of "The Molecular Biology of the Cell," now in its third edition, considered the leading advanced textbook in this field and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. His most recent text, "Essential Cell Biology," is intended to present this subject matter to a wider audience. He is committed to the improvement of science education; he helped to create City Science, a program for improving science teaching in San Francisco elementary schools.


Dr. Rodger W. Bybee
Rodger W. Bybee is executive director of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), a non-profit organization that develops curriculum materials and provides professional development for the science-education community. Prior to joining BSCS, he was executive director of the National Research Council’s Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE), in Washington, D.C. Between 1992 and 1995, he was associate director of BSCS in Colorado Springs, Colorado. During that time, he participated in the development of the National Science Education Standards, and in 1993-1995 he chaired the content working group of that National Research Council project. At BSCS, he was principal investigator for four new National Science Foundation (NSF) programs: an elementary school program entitled Science for Life and Living: Integrating Science, Technology, and Health and a middle school program entitled Middle School Science & Technology. He also was principal investigator of a new high school biology program titled BSCS Biology: A Human Approach, and a college program titled Biological Perspectives. His work at BSCS also included serving as principal investigator for programs to develop curriculum frameworks for teaching about the history and nature of science and technology for biology education at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, and curriculum reform based on national standards. From 1990 to 1992, Dr. Bybee chaired the curriculum and instruction study panel for the National Center for Improving Science Education (NCISE). From 1972 to 1985, he was professor of education at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. He has been active in education for more than thirty years, having taught science at the elementary, junior and senior high school, and college levels.

Dr. Bybee has written widely, publishing in both education and psychology. He is co-author of a leading textbook titled Teaching Secondary School Science: Strategies for Developing Scientific Literacy. His most recent book is Achieving Scientific Literacy: From Purposes to Practices, published in1997. Over the years, he has received awards as a Leader of American Education and an Outstanding Educator in America, and in 1979 was Outstanding Science Educator of the Year. In 1989 he was recognized as one of the 100 outstanding alumni in the history of the University of Northern Colorado. Dr. Bybee’s biography has been included in the Golden Anniversary 50th Edition of Who’s Who in America. In April 1998, the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) presented Dr. Bybee with the NSTA’s Distinguished Service to Science Education Award.


Dr. William E. Dugger, Jr.
William E. Dugger, Jr. has served as the director of the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) Technology for All Americans Project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1994 to the present. The recent accomplishment of the project was to develop and publish Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (published in 2000) for grades K-12 in American schools. From 2000 to 2003, he is directing another ITEA project funded by NSF and NASA to develop Assessment Standards for Technological Literacy, Professional Development Standards for Technological Literacy, and Program Standards for Technological Literacy. Dugger is an Emeritus Professor at Virginia Tech and served as a Professor of Education and the Program Area Leader for Technology Education in the College of Education at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, Virginia) from 1972 to1994. He was the president of the ITEA in 1984-85 and he has served on the Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) Board of Directors and was the PDK District VIII representative from 1992-1998.


Dr. Alan J. Friedman
Alan J. Friedman is the Director of the New York Hall of Science, New York City's public science-technology center. Since he was appointed its director in 1984, the New York Hall of Science has become a leading science-technology center, with special recognition for its work in encouraging new technologies (TryScience web site, Easy-View MicroscopeTM, Quantum Atom Model), in creating new models for teacher training (Science Career Ladder, Starlab Training/Rental Program), and in evaluating the effectiveness of informal science learning. The New York Hall of Science is also known for its special commitment to the diverse population of the New York City area. The American Association for the Advancement of Science recognized Dr. Friedman's work in developing the Hall of Science by naming him the 1996-97 winner of the AAAS Award for Public Understanding of Science and Technology. Before coming to New York Dr. Friedman served as Conseiller Scientifique et Mus?ologique for the Cit? des Sciences et de l'Industrie, Paris, and was the Director of Astronomy and Physics at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley for 12 years. He is the co-author, with Carol C. Donley, of Einstein as Myth and Muse (Cambridge University Press, 1985). Dr. Friedman received his Ph.D. in Physics from Florida State University and his B.S. in Physics from the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the New York Academy of Sciences. His interests include museums, science and technology education, and the relations among science, technology, and the broader culture. He recently completed serving a two-year term as Chair of the Cultural Institutions Group of the City of New York, which represents 33 museums, theaters, zoos, botanic gardens, and historical societies.


Mr. William D. Hansen
William D. Hansen was sworn in as the deputy secretary of education on May 24, 2001. In this post, Hansen serves as the Department of Education’s (ED) chief operating officer and the principal adviser to Secretary Rod Paige on programs, policies, management and budget matters. He was formally nominated as deputy secretary by President George W. Bush on April 23, 2001, and unanimously confirmed by the Senate a month later on May 22. The president announced his intention to nominate Hansen, 42, who served as the Education Department transition team director for the Bush-Cheney Transition, on March 8. From 1993 until his appointment as deputy secretary, Hansen served as the president and CEO of the Education Finance Council, which works to expand educational opportunities for students to pursue their dreams of a postsecondary education. In this capacity Hansen managed the interests of organizations that held more than $40 billion in student aid. He has also served on several state and national boards and commissions on reforming elementary and secondary schools and increasing access to higher education, including the National Commission on the Cost of Higher Education. An 11-year Department veteran, Hansen, prior to joining the Education Finance Council, held a number of posts at ED from 1981 to 1993, excluding two years from 1988 to 1990 when he was, first, deputy director of public affairs at the Department of Commerce and, then, headed the intergovernmental and industry affairs office at the Department of Energy. Hansen, who first came to ED in 1981 as a legislative assistant, later served as acting assistant secretary for legislation and congressional affairs and deputy assistant secretary for elementary and secondary education. From 1990 to 1991, he served as acting deputy under secretary for planning, budget, and evaluation. From 1991 to 1993, he was the assistant secretary for management and budget and the chief financial officer.


Rep. Rush Holt
Rush Holt, 53, is a resident of Hopewell Township, N.J. Born in West Virginia, he inherited his interest in politics from his parents. His father was the youngest person ever to be elected to the U.S. Senate, at age 29. His mother served as Secretary of State of West Virginia, the only woman to hold that position. Rep. Holt received his B.A. in Physics from Carleton College in Minnesota and earned his Master’s and Ph.D. at NYU. He has held positions as a teacher, Congressional Scientist Fellow, research scientist, and as an arms control expert for the U.S. State Department. He has conducted research on solar wind and received a patent for a solar energy device. He was also a five-time winner of the game show "Jeopardy." From 1989 until he began his 1998 congressional campaign, Holt was Assistant Director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the largest research facility of Princeton University and the largest center for research in alternative energy in New Jersey. Recognizing Rep. Holt’s standing among his colleagues, he has been appointed to the leadership in Congress as an At-Large Whip. He serves on the Committee on Education and the Workforce, the Committee on Resources and the powerful Committee on the Budget. He served on the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century and has introduced legislation to implement its recommendations. He serves on several caucuses, including those on Alzheimer’s, Biomedical Research, India and Indian-Americans, Diabetes, Farmland Protection, Human Rights, Pro-Choice, Renewable Energy, and Sustainable Development. Rep. Holt is also a member of the New Democrat Coalition.

In only a short time, Rep. Holt has won several significant victories in Washington. He passed an amendment to the Land and Water Conservation Fund providing millions in funding for protecting open space. Rep. Holt was instrumental in adding the lower Delaware River to the National Wild and Scenic River program, and helped secure more than $700 million in additional funding for science and technology in the 2001 budget. Rep. Holt also secured $400,000 for the 21st Century Science Teachers Skills Project, which helps provide teachers internships in high technology fields. In the district whenever possible, Rep. Holt has developed a reputation as a tireless advocate for his constituents, having opened over three thousand, five hundred formal investigations for constituents who have contacted his office. He has also made over one hundred school visits during his first two year term and held dozens of town meetings and forums on topics such as HMO Reform, Education, Smart Growth, Privacy and Long-Term Care.

He has also helped secure millions of dollars for transportation projects in the five counties he represents.


Dr. Carl F. Kohrt
Dr. Carl F. Kohrt is President and CEO of Battelle, a global technology development and commercialization leader headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Battelle is a $1 billion company with 7,500 employees at over 70 locations throughout the world. It counts as its successes the development of the Xerox machine, pioneering work on the compact disc, and medical technology breakthroughs. In the area of commercial innovation, Battelle has spawned new ventures and companies in fiber optics, electronic commerce, pharmaceuticals, energy, electronics, and informatics. Battelle also manages or co-manages three of the U.S. national laboratories for the Department of Energy – Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. It also serves as a major subcontractor for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A native of central Illinois, Dr. Kohrt began his tenure at Battelle in October 2001, after a distinguished 29-year career at Kodak. His work at Kodak was nearly equally divided among research and development, global technical management, and international business. Dr. Kohrt helped lead the discovery or commercialization of entirely new color imaging systems and revamped Kodak’s intellectual property process to become the leading Fortune 500 company in terms of the number of U.S. patents issued per R&D dollar spent.

Prior to his retirement from Kodak as Executive Vice President, Assistant Chief Operating Officer, and Chief Technical Officer, Dr. Kohrt and his wife, Lynne, lived in Hong Kong where he led the first-ever acquisition of multiple Chinese State-Owned Enterprises by a foreign multinational corporation. His leadership helped make China the second largest market for Kodak film. Dr. Kohrt earned a B.S. in Chemistry from Furman University, a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Chicago, and a Masters in Management Science from MIT. He served as a NSF Post-doctoral Fellow at the James Plank Institute, Woodrow Wilson Fellow, and Sloan Fellow. Dr. Kohrt serves on numerous business and civic organizations, including the Conference Board; Council on Competitiveness; Board of Directors for Patient Infosystems, Inc.; SCRAM Technologies, Inc.; Furman University Advisory Board; Battelle for Kids; Battelle Pulmonary Therapeutics, Inc.; Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC; Capitol South; Greater Columbus Chamber of Commerce; Ohio Business Roundtable; Pharos; and UT-Battelle, LLC.


Dr. Gerhard Salinger
Gerhard Salinger is a Program Director in the Instructional Materials Development program in the Division of Elementary, Secondary and Informal Education (ESIE) in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources at the National Science Foundation (NSF). In this position, he recommends the funding of proposals to develop nationally disseminated, instructional materials supporting educational reform in mathematics, science and technology education in K-12 classrooms. In addition, he is co-Lead Program Director of the Advanced Technological Education program. This program supports technician education at the two-year college level and preparation for that at the secondary schools. Since coming to the NSF in 1989, Gerhard has been interested in technology education - the study of the built world using design, systems thinking and three-dimensional modeling. He received the Lawrence W. Prakken Award for professional cooperation from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA). The interest in technology education has lead to the interest in technician education and to school to work issues. These areas are of great import to the United States in maintaining its economic competitive edge in the world economy. The high performance workplace needs workers who can use their heads as well as their hands and who can make decision that build quality into products and processes. Prior to coming to the NSF in 1989, Salinger was a professor in the Physics Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York for twenty-five years and chairman of the Department for eleven years. In his research work on the low temperature properties of amorphous materials, he supervised ten students in their Ph.D. work and has about twenty-five publications including a successful, college-level textbook on thermodynamics published by Addison-Wesley. Salinger received his B.S. in Physics from Yale University in 1956 and an M.S. and Ph.D. in physics from the University of Illinois in 1958 and 1961 respectively. Before going to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1964, he spent two years establishing a low temperature physics laboratory at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil.


Dr. Susan Sclafani
Susan Sclafani is Counselor to the U.S. Secretary of Education. In that role, she advises the Secretary on educational issues and initiatives. Previously Dr. Sclafani was Chief of Staff for Educational Services in the Houston Independent School District. In that position, she represented the Superintendent on educational issues and coordinated activities of the departments directly involved in the education of children, including school administration, educational programs, legal services, community and public relations, reading, and the superintendent's office. Prior to that, she was Associate Superintendent for District Administration, where she coordinated districtwide initiatives and collaborative programs with the state education department, universities and individual schools, and monitored progress on initiatives in key departments for the Superintendent of Schools. As Assistant Superintendent in Construction Management, Dr. Sclafani was responsible for the development of educational facilities programming for Project Renewal, a $627 million renovation and construction program. She previously served as Executive Director of Curriculum Development, where she planned the districtwide K-12 Character Education program, directed Project ACCESS (A Collaborative Curriculum To Enhance Student Success) and directed the development and implementation of plans to restore the accreditation status of the school district. Dr. Sclafani received her A.B. degree from Vassar College, her M.A. in Germanic Languages and Literature from the University of Chicago, and her M.Ed. and Ph.D. in Educational Administration from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Sclafani participated in the Cooperative Superintendency Program at the University of Texas while completing her doctoral work. She is also a charter member of Superintendents Prepared, an initiative to identify and train the next generation of urban superintendents.


Dr. Wm. A. Wulf
Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is on leave from the University of Virginia, where he is a University Professor and AT&T Professor of Engineering in the Computer Science Dept., to serve as President of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Together with its sibling, the National Academy of Sciences, the NAE is both an honorific organization and an independent, authoritative advisor to the government on issues involving science and technology. Prior to joining the University of Virginia, Dr. Wulf was an Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation, responsible for computing research, the national supercomputer centers, and the NSFnet (predecessor to the Internet as we know it now). Prior to NSF, Dr. Wulf founded and was CEO of Tartan Laboratories, a software company in Pittsburgh. Tartan was based on research Dr. Wulf did while on the faculty of Carnegie-Mellon University. Dr. Wulf holds a BS in Engineering Physics and an MS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois and a PhD. in Computer Science from the University of Virginia. He has conducted research in computer architecture, programming languages, optimizing compilers and computer security. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, AAAS, AWIS, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.