Since 1996, the National Research Council (NRC) Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board (ARLTAB) has provided biannual assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the research, development, and analysis programs at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). ALTAB is assisted by six NRC panels, each of which focuses on programs in one ARL directorate. When requested, ARLTAB also examines inter-directorate work. The current report summarizes findings for 2009–2010. During that time, 96 volunteer experts in relevant fields of science and engineering participated in the following activities: annual visits to ARL to attend formal presentations of technical work, examine facilities, engage in technical discussions with ARL staff, and review ARL technical materials. Based on this information, the review board concludes that the overall quality of ARL’s technical staff and work continues to be impressive and applauds ARL for its passionate concern for the end user of its technology—the soldier in the field—and for is focus on the importance of transitioning technology to support immediate and longer-term Army needs. ARL staff also continue to expand their engagement with the larger scientific and engineering community. In general, the reviewers conclude that ARL has made significant advances in its research and development niche.