National Academy of Engineering Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Volume 10
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Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Volume 10

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             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         87
                         DONALD F.GALLOWAY
                BY M.EUGENE MERCHANT
                DONALD F.GALLOWAY, founder and retired director general of the
            Production Engineering Research Association of Great Britain, died on
            December 21, 1996, at the age of eighty-three. Don was born on March 22, 1913,
            in Birmingham, England. He received a thorough grounding in fundamental
            knowledge from his British secondary school education. Following this, Don first
            served an engineering apprenticeship with Birmingham Small Arms Machine
            Tools and then attended Birmingham Technical College. Upon graduation, he
            entered Cambridge University, but his studies there were interrupted as he took
            up an invitation to go briefly to Canada. When he returned, he resumed his
            pursuit of a university education in earnest, and earned a London External B.Sc.
            degree in engineering in 1936.
                During his engineering studies, he developed a strong interest in
            manufacturing and decided to begin his career by employment in that industry.
            He therefore accepted an offer of employment at Birmingham Small Arms
            Machine Tool Company in the position of designer of machine tools. In 1937 he
            joined Dunlop Rubber Company, Birmingham, as a designer for plant
            automation. However, he soon began to realize that his real interest was to
            become involved in engineering research in the field of manufacturing. In 1939
            he had the good fortune to secure a position as assistant director at the Institution
            of Pro
             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         88
             duction Engineers, the technical society serving engineers employed in the British
             manufacturing industry. This gave him the opportunity to simultaneously pursue
             graduate study, culminating in his being awarded a Ph.D., external, by London
             University in 1943. In 1944 he was made director of research at the Institution of
             Production Engineers.
                By this time, Don’s interest in manufacturing research had sharpened still
             further, and he became particularly inquisitive about its effects on the
             manufacturing industry as whole. He therefore began to travel extensively on the
             European continent, as well as in Britain, to observe and discuss the research
             being done in this field in both industry and academia. This produced two
             outcomes that had salutary effects, not only on his career, but also on that of
             other manufacturing engineers worldwide. First, he had come to realize that world
             manufacturing industry of that time was in serious need of a highly competent
             source of industry-oriented manufacturing research and development, to increase
             its productivity and effectiveness. Second, through his travels he had become
             well acquainted with the leading people in manufacturing research in Britain and
             on the continent at that time, most of whom were engaged in such research in
                Regarding the first of these outcomes, Don, in his position as director of
             research at the Institution of Production Engineers, had already become extremely
             successful in planning and organizing industrial research and in promoting
             cooperation among engineering organizations and specialists in the field of
             manufacturing. As a result, he became convinced that industrial firms could
             benefit greatly from cooperative research on their common manufacturing
             problems. As a consequence of this conviction, together with his previously
             mentioned recognition of the serious need for a highly competent source of
             industry-oriented manufacturing research and development, in 1946 Don took the
             bold move of organizing and founding the now world-renowned Production
             Engineering Research Association (PERA) of Great Britain, headquartered in
             Melton Mowray, United Kingdom. He served as the director general of PERA
             until 1978, when he retired. Under his dynamic leadership, these famous PERA
             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         89
             laboratories came to serve the needs of thousands of factories spread among many
             countries throughout the world.
                Don was always determined that the results of PERA’s research be properly
            applied in industry. As part of this philosophy, he persuaded the British
            government to take the unusual action of supporting various in-plant projects. For
            example, this included such programs as the PERA Mobile Demonstration Unit,
            which visited companies to introduce and demonstrate the new technologies and
            techniques that PERA’s research and development had developed. This program
            evolved into the Production Engineering Advisory Service, which provided
            advice and assistance covering the whole spectrum of manufacturing activities.
            Over the years, the PERA laboratories carried out extensive and highly
            productive cooperative manufacturing research and development for a great
            variety of manufacturing companies, to solve their manufacturing problems. In
            many cases, this yielded immense improvements in their productivity,
            profitability, and competitiveness. Eventually, PERA grew to become one of
            Europe’s leading multiskilled organizations specializing in management
            consulting, technology, business research, and training. Its staff of 400 operated
            from four sites in the United Kingdom and one office in Spain, assisting its
            worldwide client base with the development of competitive manufacturing and
            business strategies.
                As for the second of the two outcomes referred to above, that of Don’s wide
            acquaintance with the leading people engaged in manufacturing research in
            Britain and on the continent, this also culminated in a highly beneficial event for
            manufacturing research. That event evolved from a close relationship that he
            developed in the late 1940s with three distinguished manufacturing researchers in
            three other countries. These were Professor E.Bickel of the Technical University
            of Zurich (Switzerland), Professor O.Peters of the Catholic University of Leuven
            (Belgium), and General P.Nicolau, director of the research arm of the French
            military (France). These three shared Don’s conviction that the development of
            new manufacturing technology was being hampered by the lack of appropriate
            manufacturing research. Further, they also all felt strongly that there was an
            urgent need for joint action in this area. They also realized that, in
             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         90
             view of the importance and scale of the problems to be tackled, only international
             cooperative action among manufacturing researchers would be effective.
             Discussions among the four resulted in their conception and establishment of a
             mechanism to accomplish just this. This was the foundation, in 1951, of the
             International Institution for Production Research (CIRP). Membership in this
             society was limited to leading manufacturing researchers from the various
             industrialized countries of the world, selected by vote of the members. This
             membership pattern was intended to ensure maximum efficiency in international
             communication, cooperation, and participation among the members, and has done
             so very effectively. The collective influence of that society, which now has
             members in thirty-eight countries, has had a unique and salutary impact on
             improvements in manufacturing operations, worldwide. Don was extremely
             active in it from the start and served as its president from 1959 to 1960.
                Don was not only a capable executive and organizer, but also a capable
             researcher in his own right. He won early recognition for his landmark research
             on the drilling process, one of the most widely used and critical processes
             employed by the manufacturing industry worldwide. He also conducted very
             important original research on the effects of machine tool design, maintenance
             practices, and human factors on productivity of manufacturing operations. But he
             made important contributions to industrial productivity in many other ways as
             well and also received many awards and other recognition for his outstandingly
             effective efforts, in many fields, to advance the capabilities of the world
             manufacturing industry. Among his most significant publications are the
                 •  Practical Drilling Tests (book) with I.S.Morton, Institution of Production
                   Engineers, 1947.
                 •   “Production Engineering Research and Its Practical Applications in
                   Britain.” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1956 (Calvin
                   W.Rice Lecture).
                 •   “Machine Tool Research, Design and Utilization,” Institution of
                   Mechanical Engineers, 1960 (James Clayton Lecture).
             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         91
                 •   “Production Engineering Research and the Common Market,” The
                   Production Engineer, 1951.
                 •   “Technology, Economy and Philosophy of Improving Productivity in
                   Manufacturing Industries,” Institute of Production Engineers, 1968.
                 •   “Mankind and Manufacture.” Presidential Address to the Institution of
                   Production Engineers, 1969.
                 •   “Technology Transfer for Manufacturing Industries.” AGARD
                   Conference, Paris, 1978.
                He was elected to the council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in
            1950 and elected as its president in 1969. He was also a fellow of that institution
            and of the Institution of Production Engineers. In 1973 he helped organize the
            Engineers Registration Board, representing fifty-two English institutions, and
            was its chairman through 1979. He also served on the Council of Engineering
            Institutions from 1973 to 1978. He was awarded a CBE (Commander of the
            British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in 1962 in recognition of his service to the
            nation. In 1978 he was made an honorary member of the Society of
            Manufacturing Engineers (USA). In that same year, Don received the high honor
            of being chosen for membership in the newly formed Fellowship of Engineering
            (now the Royal Academy of Engineering), the British equivalent of the U.S.
            National Academy of Engineering and served as leader of its Group A (marine,
            mechanical, aeronautical, production engineering) during 1978 to 1979. After his
            retirement from PERA in 1978, he served as a private consultant, mostly at the
            governmental level, for seven countries in the Far East. He also was a leader in
            developing a national plan for improving productivity in the United Kingdom,
            based on his earlier work. He was elected to membership in the National
            Academy of Engineering, as a foreign associate, in 1984.
                Don had an engaging personality and, in addition, a marvelous British-style
            sense of humor, making him very popular, not only with his male peers but also
            with their ladies. Don’s strong passion for manufacturing research, while being
            his most consuming one, was by no means his only one. He pursued a variety of
            others with great vigor throughout his full life. In his youth,
             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         92
             Don was a keen athlete and won several mile and half-mile events in the British
             Midlands Championships. He also enjoyed playing tennis. Later in life he became
             interested in farming and particularly in the breeding of pedigreed Galloway
             cattle, a hobby that persisted throughout most of the rest of his life. He also had a
             penchant for fine horses. He acquired a farm, named Roecliffe in Charnwood,
             located near Loughborough in Leicestershire, England, made it home for himself
             and his lovely wife, Toni, and stocked it with the finest of pedigreed Belted
             Galloways and some elegant riding horses. We remember with pleasure our many
             visits there, a part of each of which was always to be taken on a tour of its
             meadows, spiced with Don’s humor, to admire and enjoy the cattle and horses.
             Further, when he came to visit us in Ohio, a must of the visit was a tour into
             Kentucky to see the Man ‘o War’s statue and grave, visit the horse farms (where
             he had the most famous of the horses paraded out for him), and visit farms that
             bred Belted Galloway cattle.
                Another of Don’s passions was CIRP, of which he was a cofounder. He
            lavished his time and effort on it to ensure its success. And when its annual
            General Assembly finally met for the first time in Britain, in 1958, he left no
            stone unturned to make it the most outstanding such meeting in that society’s
            history up to then. He unleashed the entire staff of PERA’s Conference Division
            on it, ensuring impeccable operation of both the technical sessions and programs
            and the social events, including the social programs for the ladies. To quote from
            the “Ladies Programs” portion of the written history of CIRP, “Justice was most
            assuredly done to ‘England’s Green and Pleasant Land’—to the ancient capitol of
            the British people sitting on the banks of the river Thames—to its abbeys,
            cathedrals, castles, stately homes, its universities, market towns and its storybook
            villages. Dr. and Mrs. Galloway were absolutely convinced that visitors to
            England could not have a good time, or understand what they were seeing or
            doing, without a few pointers; and a few pointers they were given—to put it
            modestly.” In 1968 the CIRP General Assembly was again held in Britain and
            once more Don and PERA hosted it. To again quote the CIRP history, “It would
            be safe to say that THE HIGHLIGHT of the meeting was the afternoon
             DONALD F.GALLOWAY                                         93
             the men and women spent at the farm of Dr. and Mrs. Galloway at Roecliffe in
             Charnwood. We wandered through the gray stone house which rose above
             terraced gardens. We admired the farm buildings and even strolled a distance to
             observe the magnificent herd of cattle grazing in the meadows—Belted
             Galloways, of course.”
                Don and his wife, Toni, had one daughter, Toni Ann, who often attended the
             CIRP General Assemblies with them until she married. She and her husband,
             Anthony Charter, then moved to Hong Kong, where, until his recent retirement,
             he held the position of manager of the notorious old Kai Tak Hong Kong
             International Airport. Don’s wife, Toni, unfortunately died in 1984. He later
             remarried and, with his new wife, Mary, he created a new home and a lovely
             garden at Morcott in Rutland, England.
                Don was a consummate engineer, an inspired and inspiring leader, and truly a
             gentleman and a scholar in every sense of those words! He is deeply missed,
             indeed, by all who knew him well.
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