Women scientists and engineers face barriers to success in every field of science and engineering. As a result, the country is deprived of an important source of talent. Without a transformation of academic institutions to bring down such barriers, the future vitality of the U.S. research base and economy is in jeopardy. Eliminating gender bias in academia will require basic reforms now, including decisive action by university administrators, professional societies, federal funding agencies and foundations, government agencies, and Congress. If implemented and coordinated across public, private, and government sectors, the actions recommended in this report will help to improve workplace environments for all employees and strengthen the foundations of America’s competitiveness.