Technological innovation will be essential for addressing the difficult challenges that lie ahead, such as feeding a growing population, meeting the demand for energy without destroying the environment, and countering chronic and emerging infectious diseases. At a public forum at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the National Academy of Engineering, “Rebuilding a Real Economy: Unleashing Engineering Innovation,” seven prominent leaders of the innovation system discussed the challenges facing the United States. The panelists agreed that reenergizing our innovation system will require a portfolio of interconnected, interdependent initiatives to generate new knowledge and technology and move that knowledge into a competitive world marketplace. The panelists discussed the roles of key players, such as research universities, entrepreneurs, national laboratories, and the manufacturing sector, and initiatives that could encourage and support innovation, including enlightened energy policy, incentive prizes, and creative educational programs. The experience of Singapore was cited as an example of how innovation could support an economy.